Issue 1(32) 2015
Annotations and key words. Issue 1(32) 2015.
Literary Translation and Problems of Adequacy
Litvin, Felix, Ph.D. (Dr. of Philology), Professor (Orel State University, Orel, Russia)
Translation and grammatical categories (analysing parallel texts) (2)
The second part presents the analysis of Perfect forms functioning in (British and American) English and in German in six translations of the identical Russian text. The translations are compared in “twos” (same language/ variant), “twos of twos” (each language/variant “two” with the others) and all six together. Sameness and difference (“by perfectivity”) of verbal forms is analysed; differences may be due either to the translator’s techniques, or “pure”, reflecting the nationally-specific or the addresser’s interpretation of the situation. The results are interpreted by the author as supporting the presence of a common semantic invariant of the forms (“the addresser presenting the verb’s referent as correlated with another event”), less difference between territorial variants than between languages, and a wider range of variation in German. Also supported is the role of the subjective factor in interpreting such correlation and its character in each given case.
parallel texts, forms matching and not matching in perfectivity, “pure”
mismatches, subjective factor in interpreting correlation
Orlitsky, Yury, Ph.D. (Dr. of Philology), Leading Researcher (Russian State Humanitarian University, Moscow, Russia)
Metrical and Metricized Prose in Translation of Poetry and Prose into Russian (Part 1)
The article shows the early attempts of Russian poets-translators to develop alternative strategies of translating Petrarch, Parny, Mickiewicz, Ossian and others into Russian. Rather than use verse, they experimented with metrical and, partially, metricized prose, which betrays some characteristics of poetic discourse, but aims at maximal precision in rendering the vocabulary and message of the original. The paper focuses on the theoretical assumptions and translations contributed by Trediakovsky, Derzhavin, Karamzin, Kostrova, Zhukovsky, Tumansky, Viazemsky, Bunina.
poetic meter in prose, metrical prose, Andrei Bely, Petrarch, Parny, Ossian
Functional Styles and Discourse Studies
Golodov, Aleksandr, Ph.D. (Dr. of Philology) (Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
Some Peculiarities of the Political Language of Information War (in German)
Verbal manipulation, unlike fact manipulation, is less direct. It does not tamper with facts, but changes their evaluation by showing them from a distorted perspective. Traditionally, the notion of “verbal manipulation” has been associated exclusively with totalitarian and autocratic regimes, whereas democratic press (including German) has seldom been studied from this angle. Yet the events of the recent decades show that public opinion is manipulated even in the countries that have always been considered “the pillars of western democracy”.
Information war, in its modern manifestation, can be observed when analyzing the language means employed for the allegedly “just” coverage of the 2013–2015 conflict in Ukraine. The “correct” viewpoint means a negative picture of what “the others” are doing and justification of any crimes committed by the “right side”. The article analyses linguistic means that are employed in contemporary information war to denigrate the political opponent by a biased manner of presenting facts and assessing events: the choice of vocabulary, use of expressive compound words, use of inverted commas for stylistic effect.
The author uses current materials from “BILD”, a popular German newspaper with a multi-million circulation, which has a considerable influence on the shaping of public opinion.
verbal means of waging information war, German mass media, political vocabulary
Karasik, Vladimir, Ph.D. (Dr. of Philology), Professor (Volgograd State Social and Pedagogical University, Volgograd, Russia)
Linguocultural Values in Discourse
The article deals with linguocultural values, i.e. typical presumptions of good and bad which determine the in- terpretation of axiogenic situations (values generating states of things). A three-dimensional classification of such situations has been suggested, including universal vs specific, real vs fictional and prescriptive vs non-binding evaluative orientations. I argue that axiogenic situations express three types of values – basic, moral and utilitarian – and are implemented in certain linguistic formats comprising myths, legends, parables, proverbs, aphorisms, jokes and life stories. Each discourse format correlates with certain value type expression. It is found that values develop in the direction of moral norms gradual increase as enrooted in collective and individual mentality.
values, evaluations, axiogenic situations, interpretation, discourse format, text-type
Stepanov, Valentin, Ph.D. (Dr. of Philology), Professor (International University of Business and New Technologies, Yaroslavl’, Russia)
‘Kraft’ (‘Force’), ‘Geist’ (‘Spirit’), ‘Genie’ и ‘Genius’ (‘Genius’) as Transparent Concepts in Wilhelm von Humboldt’s Philosophy
The paper examines how the concepts of ‘Kraft’, ‘Geist’, ‘Genie’, ‘Genius’ in the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt reflect the manifestation of the individual in the general. From the author’s viewpoint, it occurs level by level, namely, on the personal, transpersonal, super-personal and extra-personal levels. The author regards the concepts of ‘Kraft’, ‘Geist’, ‘Genie’, ‘Genius’ as transparent (that is, possessing a similar mental structure and reflecting a similar way of storing and transmitting knowledge). These concepts often occur in similar or closely connected lexical and grammatical contexts and refer to the same subject or source. The identical hierarchical structure of ‘Kraft’, ‘Geist’, ‘Genie’, ‘Genius’ as conceptual spheres makes it possible to treat them as one transparent conceptual sphere ‘Kraft’ ~ ‘Geist’ ~ ‘Genie’ ~ ‘Genius’.
Wilhelm von Humboldt , concept, force, ‘Kraft’ , spirit, ‘Geist’, ‘Genie’ ,‘Genius’, transparent concepts, transparent conceptual sphere
Sheina, Irina, Ph.D. (Philology) (Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
The Prototypical and Discourse-Focused Models of the “Contract” Genre
This article is an attempt to identify the boundaries of genre formed by its prototypical structure, which, in its turn, is generated by the prototypical concept identified on the basis of the main genre characteristics. These characteristics are defined by the communicative situation and the communicative goal of the genre. The main characteristics of the genre of “contract” can be described as follows: two parties voluntarily take obligations to gain profit (benefit), so the prototypical concept for this genre is “obligation”. The article also describes the discourse model of genre which serves as a tool for investigating the specific features of linguistic conceptualization in different types of text. The discourse model includes the components of the communicative situation, the conceptual structures used in the process of information processing (concepts, frames and categories), language units employed to verbalize these conceptual structures and the discourse module. The latter consists of discourse strategies and tactics ensuring the communicative goal of discourse. As a result, the study reveals a set of dependencies between the place of a text in the prototypical model and the way concepts, frames and categories operate in the process of conceptualization.
linguistic conceptualization, concept, frame, category, prototypical model, discourse model, discourse module
The Functioning of Language Units in a Linguistic System
Alexanova, Larissa, Ph.D. (Philology), Associate Professor (Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
On the Peculiarities of Using the German Construction “sein + zu + Infinitiv“ with Verbs of Thinking and Speaking
The article treats the peculiarities of using the German construction „sein + zu + Infinitiv“ with verbs of thinking and speaking. Verbs of this semantic group frequently occur with this construction, both in belles-lettres and in scholarly literature, the latter making ample use of such verbs, which vary in this functional style both quantitatively and qualitatively. Analysis of their frequency of occurrence with the „sein + zu + Infinitiv“ construction has shown that such verbs as denken, sagen, verstehen mostly occur in the belles-lettres style, whereas scholarly discourse makes greater use of the verbs beachten, achten, feststellen and others. In academic style, structures with verbs of thinking and speaking, for the most part, have the meaning of necessity, and in belles-lettres texts – that of possibility. The paper also examines the most frequent types of sentences with the verbs of this semantic group.
construction, modal meaning, verbs of thinking and speaking, the infinitive
Karpova, Inna, Ph.D. (Philology), Associate Professor (Tula State Pedagogical University named for L.N. Tolstoi, Tula, Russia)
A Lexicographic Description of the Russian Deonyms Traceable Back to the British Extra-Linguistic Context
Russian deonyms that are traced back to the British extra-linguistic context constitute a part of the author’s dictionary “A Wonderful Metamorphosis of the Proper Noun: An Explanatory-Etymological Dictionary of Russian” which describes about 1 400 deonyms from the 1690s onwards. The dictionary is innovative because Russian deonyms have only been studied partially so far and also because in this dictionary they are described in a multiparameter way.
The author of the dictionary collected the deonyms, traced them back to their onyms, showed the etymology of the onyms and illustrated the deonyms with quotations from written sources. About 200 deonyms are traced back to the British extra-linguistic context. The structure of the dictionary entry comprises the entry word with its grammatical characteristics, the definition, the quotations, the extra-linguistic context, the source onym and its etymology. The lexico-semantic variants are treated separately, as are the heterogeneous deonyms (i.e. the deonyms that are traced back to the same onym when the latter is related to different referents). The deonyms show a notable thematic diversity ranging from the breeds of domestic animals (йоркшир, саутдаун) to the sorts of cheese (чеддер) and from the sports events (дерби) to the furniture (чиппендейл), commonly the deonyms are traced back to toponyms and anthroponyms (names of historic and political figures, scientists, inventors, manufacturers and breeders).
appellative, definition, the deonims are commonly traced back, deonymization, dictionary, dictionary entry, dictionary entry zone, etymological, extra-linguistic context, grammatical characteristics, heterogeneous deonyms, lexico-semantic variant, morphological variant, onym
Streltsov, Aleksei, Ph.D. (Education), Associate Professor (Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia)
Some Aspects of Assimilation of Anglicisms in the Russian Language and Their Influence on It
The article deals mostly with grammatical and word-building issues of the assimilation of English borrowings in the Russian language. The study is based on mass-media corpus Integrum-2007, National corpus of the Russian language, and the Internet. By and large anglicisms (derived by affixation or composition) are poorly assimilated morphologically, and have a low derivation potential (word-building formats such as office, manager, test, house, writer, list, room, news, party, bike, maker, travel, show, fashion, girl, friend) or, if not (words with suffixes -able, -ible, -ess), have a low frequency of occurrence. Their impact on the vocabulary is insignificant; on the other hand, they broaden the derivational potential. There is a syntactical influence of English on Russian (expressions “spend +Adj+ time”; the construction “what is…, is…”), if fairly slight. The author proposes means of quantitative assessment of the influence of English borrowings, as well as non-linguistic ways of solving the problem of anglicisms.
anglicisms, word-building, assimilation, corpus linguistics
Linguistic and Sociocultural Prerequisites to Teaching Communication in a Foreign Language
Kutyeva, Marina, Ph.D., Associate Professor (People’s Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), Moscow, Russia)
How to Make Language Learning Fun: Ideas of Spanish Educators
Nowadays, modern educators steadily pay more attention to those educational concepts which emphasize the creative, cultural, recreational and entertainment aspects of the educational process, which together would provide the student with psychological and moral comfort, sensation of happiness and joy of life, can satisfy his need for self-assertion, self-expression and communication with others. The infusion of foreign language classes with entertainment and promotion of purely entertaining teaching strategies, embodying the principles of communication and dynamic activity, in contrast to the academic, ‘dry, cold’ lessons in which the teacher is strict and demanding, are not questioned by teachers of Spanish as a foreign language. Emotion-centered strategies and contents of a foreign language lesson, aimed at the development of socially important foreign language competencies, deal with both school-age adolescents, university students and adults. A Spanish teacher focuses his/her effort not on the nature or content of the material to be studied, but on the emotional-cognitive specificity of his audience, often multinational and religiously mixed. Spanish-speaking teachers’ main objectives are the following: ensuring spontaneous communication, creating favorable conditions for the free flight of thought and informal discussions, a conflict-free psychological atmosphere, positive emotions flow and emotional discharge. These purposes require correspondent didactic and methodological resources. In the current system of value priorities in foreign languages teaching, practiced in Spanish schools, the primary role is given to the humanization and socialization of the educational process, with emphasis on active involvment, games, the visual and expressive-emotional aspects.
visualization, empathy, motivation, psychological comfort, complex didactic resources
Trukhina, Tatyana, M.A. (Philology), Assistant Lecturer (Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
Expository Discourse Addressed to Inexperienced Recipients
The article examines the peculiarities of interaction between the sender of the message and the recipient, when the former tries to shape a new concept in the mind of the recipient, and the latter lacks background knowledge essential for comprehension. The author of the article attempts to determine the ways of removing barriers to successful communication. The paper provides detailed analysis of the expository strategies that can be employed when the interaction is immediate and when it is mediated by the printed text. To explain a concept to a layman, it can be helpful to use: (a) paraphrasing and definitions instead of specific terms; (b) the rhetorical device of “division” to characterize different aspects of the object; (c) causality chains; (d) analogies from everyday life, etc. The article is concluded with summing up the tentative steps of organizing an effective expository message meant for an inexperienced reader or listener.
sender, recipient, inexperienced, layman, background knowledge, communicative situation, strategy, algorithm
Confucius Institute – on Teaching the Chinese Language and Culture
Wang Jinling, Ph.D., Dr. of Philology, Professor,
Ma Lijie, M. Soc.Sc. ( Administration), Senior Lecturer (Changchun University, Changchun, China)
Speech Genres and Rhetorical Strategies Employed by Chinese Leaders at International Forums (exemplified by the Public Speeches of President Xi Jinping)
The article explores the strategies of political discourse in the genre of public political speech, exemplified by several speeches of Xi Jinping, the political leader of China. The authors examine the rhetorical peculiarities imposed by the genre of a political public speech and those proceeding from the unique personality of Xi Jinping. Examples are provided from several speeches delivered in the course of 2014. The public speeches of the Chinese leader at international forums are characterized by an overlapping unity of the features of written and oral language, the former prevailing. To explain the leadership’s domestic and international policies, to influence the audience and produce the desired reaction, Xi Jinping resorts to a number of rhetorical techniques. Apart from giving prominence to the key words (peace, development, mutually beneficial cooperation) and their derivatives, he employs such rhetorical devices as repetition, parataxis, antithesis, citation, and makes a point of emphasizing the linguistic and cultural worldview of Chinese people.
political speech, Chinese leader, rhetorical strategies, key concepts, precedent texts
Liu Jishan, M.A. (Literature), Senior Lecturer (Changchun University, Changchun, China)
The Theory of Structural Regularities of Chinese Characters Applied to Teaching Literacy in Chinese
At present, methodology of teaching Chinese as a foreign language still lacks a theoretical and practical ration- ale for developing fluency in unhindered understanding of Chinese characters. Considering that most students of Chinese are adult people, with fully-shaped intellectual operations and a tendency for rational analysis of information, the author suggests a comprehensive approach to teaching literacy in Chinese. The approach is based on the regularities and peculiarities of the structure of characters, the order of writing lines, on the graphemes as structural elements of characters, and on treating Chinese characters as trilateral signs. The author maintains that the approach described in the article will facilitate the perception and assimilation of the form and meaning of characters.
Grammatology, Chinese character, shape and structure, line, minimal element, grapheme, meaningful structural element, teaching, theory of the structure of characters
You Tian, M.A. (Linguistics and Language Studies), Senior Lecturer (Changchun University, Changchun, China)
“Vacuum Is No Guarantee of Purity”, or Reflecting on Methodology of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language
The author summarizes his experience of language teaching and classroom observation and formulates the chief obstacles that diminish the effectiveness of teaching Chinese as a foreign language. For one thing, teachers with little or no knowledge of foreign language teaching methodology erroneously rely on the strategies of teaching Chinese as the mother tongue. Second, they often overemphasize or underestimate the challenges their learners are confronted with. Third, with too much emphasis on language accuracy, they often intimidate their learners into an embarrassed silence rather than encourage their initiative. And, finally, inexperienced teachers follow the textbook slavishly, instead of using it as a general guide and as raw material for lesson planning. The author shows how to minimize the faults of a textbook and how to develop the students’ linguistic and linguocultural competence by making use of various teaching resources without aggravating the linguistic challenges of the lesson.
Chinese as a foreign language, language teaching methodology, lesson planning, psychology, proficiency level, teaching vocabulary