Language:

Issue 4(31) 2014

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Annotation and key words. Issue 4 (31) 2014.

 

Part I

Linguistic Prerequisites for Teaching Foreign Language Communication and Translation

 

 

Polikarpov, Alexander, Ph.D., Doctor of Philology, Professor

(Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russia)

Pragmatic aspects of German grammar:

a Russian Germanist’s Commentary on Teaching the German Language to BA students

 

The article provides the author’s observations concerning the role of pragmatics for bachelor students who study German grammar as defined in their high school curriculum. The author substantiates topics of im- plementing some pragmatic aspects as an important part of grammar-focused description of spoken language. Examples that evince close interaction of grammar and pragmatics also demonstrate an existing variability of language elements, specifically in colloquial speech. “Pragmatisation” of grammar in spoken language appears as the crucial feature, by which grammatical categories, forms and meanings reveal their true linguistic poten- tial. The author elaborates on the following main theses: 1) grammatical categories in German have different pragmatic potential; 2) more emphasis shall be placed upon the pragmatic intention of a creator of grammatical occasionalisms; 3) grammatical and lexical meanings incline to interact while striving for certain pragmatic effects; 4) grammatical variation does not necessarily suggest the existence of pragmatic potential: it may indi- cate some changes in the overt information; 5) written and spoken language possess their unique grammatical rules, which may be deliberately opened for individual meaning by pragmatic intention; 6) pragmatics mani- fest themselves in a most lively manner on the periphery of grammar.

grammar, pragmatics, grammatical category, grammatical meaning, pragmatic effect, variations of ex- pression, pragmeme, syntax of spoken German

 

 

Lobanov, Sergey, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Stylistic Means of Evaluation in Modern English Prose: Stephen Lawhead’s “The Paradise War”

 

According to Riffaterre, what “language expresses, style stresses”. Being “stressed”, ideas and notions in the text become explicit, though on a purely linguistic level they remain implied. Thus, a linguistic sign in a text of the belles-lettres style may serve stylistic purposes quite remote from its original meaning. The article deals with cases of the stylistic functioning of a language sign. Stylistic evaluation, as opposed to purely linguistic, may shift from the object to the subject; it may also be aimed at implied properties of the object rather than the object itself; a stylistically charged language sign is capable of altering emphasis in a text where there is seemingly no evaluation on the linguistic level. Casual chain expansion theory is deemed instrumental in unveiling author’s implications in a text.

belles-lettres style, functional styles, stylistic evaluation, aesthetic function, explicit and implicit informa- tion, theory of frames, casual chain expansion theory, Stephen R. Lawhead, “The Paradise War”

Opanasenko, Yulia, Lecturer

(East European University of Economics and Management, Cherkassy, Ukraine)

Realia in the Translations of A. Сonan Doyle’s Detective Stories

 

The article considers the problem of rendering realia words in the texts of detective narratives. The ways of translating realia words are analyzed on the basis of A. Сonan Doyle’s detective stories about Sherlock Holmes and their Ukrainian and Russian translations. The paper substantiates the significance of rendering realia vocabulary with all the semantic features and overtones the word expresses or suggests. In the detective stories by A. Conan Doyle realia words are of great importance. They are illustrative concepts of the Victorian era, which indicate cultural and historical peculiarities of the English society of that time. The difficulties of translating these culturally-marked units in detective narratives are caused not only by the absence of their direct equivalent in the target language but by the specifics of fiction in general and the detective genre in par- ticular. These restrictions influence the translator’s choice of the ways of rendering the meaning and cultural and/or historical connotation of realia.

realia, culturally-marked unit, detective narrative, adequacy of translation, colouring, ethno-cultural information, equivalent, Victorian era, hypertext, hypernymic translation (generalization), descriptive trans- lation, calquing

 

 

Trukhina, Tatyana, M.Ph. (Philology), Assistant Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Interaction of Discourse Modes within Expository Educational Discourse

 

The paper discusses the structure and rhetorical characteristics of exposition as a discourse mode prevalent in education. It examines the logic of an expository utterance, the strategies employed to make it as effective as possible. The author claims that an effective expository text often necessitates an infusion of other discourse modes, mainly narration or description. The composition of expository utterances is also described in terms of rhetorical strategies and the way their choice is regulated by the author’s (speaker’s) intention.

Mode of discourse, interpenetration, exposition, speech strategies and tactics, effectiveness of utterance

 

 

Part II

The Functions of Onomastic Coinages in Contemporary Interpersonal and Intercultural Communication

 

Golodov, Alexander, Ph.D., Doctor of Philology, Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Word-Play as a Tool of Political Satire

 

The language of politics resorts to different kinds of word-play as a means of expressive judgment and satire, including that of contamination. Contaminants are verbal reactions to current events and political crises. Used in journalism and internet resources, contaminants affect public opinion and assessment of the events al- luded to. When Russia is faced with an international political crisis, public opinion undergoes a radical change, as a result of the national instinct for self-preservation that has been shaped for centuries. The language of mass media changes for the language of information war. After the coup in Ukraine, the contaminants based on local political anthroponyms were gradually ousted by new contaminants inspired by the Kiev Maidan movement.

political language, negative contamination, political anthroponym, expressive and judgmental name, public opinion, verbal expression

Kazyaba, Victoria, Ph.D., Associate Professor

Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Severodvinsk, Russia)

Using First Name as an Internet-Nickname

(a case study of nicknames in the German-speaking ICQ-communication)

 

The present article analyzes the use of real person’s first name as a nickname in Internet-communication, namely in the German-speaking segment of the chat-system ICQ. The function of a virtual pseudonym is fulfilled by both complete and incomplete first names of users. Their possible modification in nicknames has various ways of expression, and multiple levels of implementation: phonemic, morphemic and lexemic. In the present paper each of them is considered and described from the point of view of their potential.

Anthroponym, nickname, first name, Internet-communication, ICQ

 

 

Part III

Theory and Practice of Translating Poetry and Emotive Prose

 

 

Pursglove, David Michael, M.Phil (Oxon.), translator

(Reader (retired), Exeter University, Great Britain)

От Хитровки до Хитроу? A first English translation of Giliarovskii

 

Before 2013 Giliarovskii had not been translated into English. An American translation appeared in that year and in that year, too, preparation of a fully annotated version of both Москва и Москвичи and Друзья и встречи was begun, independently and simultaneously, in England. This article discusses translation prob- lems relating specifically to Giliarovskii: translation versus transliteration; topography, periodical titles, food, clothing, феня. The thematic significance of the купечество is examined as is the author’s acute perception and recording of other people’s language. The crucial role of the translator-editor is emphasised and the need to maintain a balance between over-editing and under-editing is stressed. Giliarovskii’s inclusion of verse of every type, from прибаутки to Russian Classical poetry is noted as posing particular demands on the trans- lator. The hope is expressed that further очерки by Giliarovskii will now be translated.

очерк, topography, феня, купечество, translator-editor

 

Kolker, Jacob, Ph.D., Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Meditations on Translation of Russian Poetry into English

 

The article is an attempt to link the author’s negative attitude to word-for-word as a method of translation to his unshakable conviction that the form of the original poem should be preserved, as long as poetic tradition of the receptor language allows it. Form in poetry is essential to conveying the author’s message and should be compensated for if, by any chance, the poet’s individual style is impossible to keep and transfer to the full. The article is an account of the process of translation, and its writer tries to bring forth the idea that the com- pensatory possibilities of a language are great and no challenge is insurmountable. The way is from inside out: from what is not shown in the text but is brooding under the surface, and must be brought to the surface. The article illustrates the idea by the example of Simonov’s «Жди меня». The writer of the article maintains that the clarity of Simonov’s style is a challenge itself, because it is very difficult to keep it and at the same time penetrate into the deep recesses of Simonov’s philosophy and transmit it to the reading public.

poetry, word-for-word, translation, style, content, form, compensation

Maryanovskaya, Elena, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Peculiarities of the Author’s Manner of Writing as a Key to Translator’s Decision-Making

 

The article examines the author’s manner of writing as a key phenomenon for a translator’s decision. Being complex, this phenomenon is always unique. In Kipling’s parable “How the Leopard Got His Spots” his manner of writing is determined by the means of cohesion and coherence he uses to create the holistic imagery of the parable. A translator should preserve the unique means of text arrangement both on the compositional and linguistic levels.

the author’s manner of writing, R. Kipling, Biblical parable, “How the Leopard Got His Spots”, cohesion and coherence, repetition

 

Matveeva, Natalia, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Elucidation of the Author’s Intention through Pre-Translation Analysis of Form and Meaning as a Unity

(Yaroslav Smelyakov’s “Charming Russian Beauties”)

 

The article presents the author’s translation of the poem by Yaroslav Smelyakov “Charming Russian Beauties” into English. It also contains pre-translation analysis, which reveals the peculiarities of the poem’s form and content and emphasizes the important role of their unity in the display of the poet’s intention. The author also comments on the main challenges and gives ground for the decisions she made. In particular, she speaks about the specific character of transmitting the rhythmic pattern of the poem into English, about the ways of representing the author’s images and rendering the built-in contrasts in translation.

form, content, unity, poet’s intention, rhythmic pattern, explication, images

 

 

Ustinova, Elena, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

“The Burning Bush” by Justinas Marcinkevičius: On the Freedom and Bondage of a Translator of Poetry

 

The author attempts to show, as exemplified in her translation of “Liepsnojantis krūmas” (“The Burning Bush”) by J. Marcinkevičius, that it is possible to deviate from line-by-line precision, provided that the au- thor’s tone and his system of imagery should be rendered with due care and respect. The deviations the author of the article risked in her translation can be accounted for by the following concerns: (a) explication of Bib- lical allusions that may be lost on the uninitiated reader, (b) a desire to make the Russian verse sound natural and musical, and (c) removal of repetitions, which sound just right in the original but heavy and even clumsy in the receptor language. The article also provides another translation, and their comparison serves a double purpose – it helps to examine the translators’ decisions and to gain a deeper insight into the poet’s message as a unity of meaning and form.

philosophical poetry, Biblical associations, integrity of imagery, line-by-line precision, phonetic ar- rangement, semantic development as a translation technique

Part IV

Contemporary Paradigms of Foreign Language Education

 

Bogolepova, Svetlana, Ph.D., Senior Teacher

(National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow, Russia),

Shadrova, Yekaterina, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Vologda State University, Vologda, Russia)

The Language Awareness Approach

to Designing an “English for Academics” Course

 

The article presents the “Language Awareness” approach and describes its history and main principles. The paper explains why it is important to apply this approach to materials development. The samples of tasks designed according to these principles are provided, among them those from the “English for Academics” textbook. The authors explain the underlying methodology of the course. The results of the textbook piloting demonstrate the relevance and efficiency of the approach implemented in a course for post-graduate students, academics and researchers.

language awareness, consciousness, English for Academics

 

 

Gridneva, Julia, Senior Lecturer

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Educational Questionnaire

as a Tool of Developing Rhetorical Skills

 

The article examines the advantages of an educational questionnaire as a tool of introducing theoret- ical information at a lesson devoted to teaching expressive writing. The author presents the second ques- tionnaire in a connected sequence of three aimed at teaching students the structure of the writing process. (The first questionnaire was discussed in Issue 1(28) 2014 of the same journal). The questionnaire defines the stages of the writing process, specifies their order, and examines the main modes of discourse, as well as the ways and methods of thought development.

educational questionnaire, expressive writing, stages, modes of discourse, restriction, specification, divi- sion, enumeration, definition, classification, analogy, contrast, comparison

 

 

Part V

Confucius Institute – on Teaching the Chinese Language and Culture

 

Li Xiaoli, M.A. (Literature), Senior Lecturer

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

Teaching Foreign Students of Chinese to Understand and Use Colloquial Coinages

 

Colloquial coinages are an important part of vocabulary due to their frequency of occurrence among the young, but so far this aspect of teaching Chinese to foreign students has remained practically unexplored. The paper examines the concept of a “colloquial coinage” and its definitions, explores the sources and ways of coining new colloquial units, analyses their inner form, or motivation, as well as their connotation and usage. The author provides examples of communication failures due to misuse of colloquial coinages

in the speech of foreign students. The paper offers recommendations concerning selection of colloquial coin- ages and the techniques of teaching students to use them in appropriate situations.

colloquial coinage, frequency of occurrence, expressiveness, teaching Chinese, contextuality, consistency

 

Ma Lijie, M.Soc.Sc.(Business Administration), Senior Lecturer

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

Culture-Focused Interpretation of the Structure of Chinese Characters

 

Chinese characters represent an ideographic writing system, in which the characters are closely connected by form and meaning. Pictographic symbols, ideographic and phonographic signs are devices invented as part of the writing system in which each type of symbol reflects the specific formal features and a close connection between the rich cultural heritage and socially relevant information. That is why teaching writing in Chinese is an inseparable part of studying Chinese culture from a diachronic perspective.

Chinese characters, structure, connection between form and meaning, between language and culture

 

 

Zhao Huanyu, M.Ed., Senior Lecturer

Ma Lijie, M.Soc.Sc.(Business Administration), Senior Lecturer

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

The ‘Flipped Classroom’ Language Teaching Methodology and its Application to Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

 

The paper examines the educational potential of the ‘flipped classroom’ strategies in reference to teaching Chinese as a foreign language. This methodology, for all its innovative character, is rooted in tradition, but, on the other hand, it depends on the usage of contemporary digital technology, which makes it possible to present the new material to the learners online, before the lesson where it will be practiced and used in com- munication. The article shows how the role of the teacher is modified and how the ‘flipped classroom’ method- ology contributes to enhancing students’ sense of responsibility and independence – largely due to presenting the goals in terms of sizable and measurable objectives. Taking into consideration the learning needs of indi- vidual students, this educational strategy makes teaching more flexible and increases student motivation. The authors show how the ‘flipped classroom’ principles are implemented in a class of Chinese.

’flipped classroom’, motivation, sizable goals, learners’ responsibility, video materials, feedback

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