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Issue 3(30) 2014

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Annotation and key words. Issue 3 (30) 2014.

Part I

Analysis of Written Text as Discourse

Zolyan, Suren, Ph.D., Dr. of Philology, Professor

(Moscow State University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia;

Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, Armenia)

On Referential and Cognitive Semantics of the Text

The paper develops the ideas of the textocentric theory of language and deals with the correlation of different types of interpretation of the text, based on its referential or cognitive semantics. Referential semantics is derivative from the textual transformation of linguistic meanings and their actualization within specific communicative contexts. The set of conceivable interpretations is infinite, although it is possible to set some limits, which make it possible to tell appropriate interpretations from non-appropriate ones. Semantization is based on cognitive orientations of the recipient, and the text semantics is transformed from denotative into connotative. That is why it is not possible to set any limits for potential interpretations.

Modern society has various institutional and ad hoc mechanisms for the formation of interpretative strategies, demarcation of the domains of their application, as well as the regulation of interpretation processes. Ambiguity (polysemy) vs unambiguity (monosemy) are rather features of interpretive strategies than only texts properties. Semantics and semantization, referential and cognitive semantics are both conflicting and complementary processes of functioning and actualization (recreation) of the text.

text, textocentric theory of language, referential semantics, cognitive semantics, interpretation, semantization.

 

Babayan, Vladimir, Ph.D. Dr. of Philology, Professor

(Mozhaisky Military Space Academy, Yaroslavl, Russia)

An Implicit Silent Bystander in a Tertiary Dialogue

The article deals with the study of a dialogue in the presence of an implicit silent bystander and examines his/her role in affecting dialogical discourse. The participants of a dialogue acknowledge the presence of the implicit bystander and try to give an adequate reaction. Thus, the implicit silent bystander influences the process of communication and is included in the speech situation. Analysis proves a two-person talk in the presence of an implicit bystander to be subjected to quite different universal communicative and linguistic rules compared to an ordinary dialogue. Awareness of that presence results in reconstruction of the communication process; it changes the dynamics, strategies and tactics of speech and influences the language as well as the style of the dialogue.

implicit silent bystander, tertiary dialogue, dialogical discourse, alliance, triad, participants of a two-person talk, process of communication, speech situation.

 

Kremer, Inessa, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

The Content and Wording Spectrum in German-Language Reviews of Research Papers

The article studies the peculiarities of content and wording of scientific reviews written in German. The author focuses on descriptive reviews, which have a clear-cut composition and a definite pattern. The article maintains that descriptive scientific reviews are chiefly based on two tactics – that of recording and that of explication. It also discusses the linguistic means of estimation as such, as well as the choice of language structures, which, to some extent, rests with the writer of the review.

German language, scientific review, process, tactics: recording and explication, persuasion, estimation.

Part II

Linguistic Pre-Requisites of Adequate Translation

Kozhetyeva, Tatiana, Ph.D., Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

 

The Field of Causality in the German Language

The Field of Causality in the German Language includes both lexical and grammatical means differing by their expressive potential and expressing the meaning of causality in a more general or more specific way. When expressing causality, lexical and grammatical means interact in achieving a definite communicative goal.

The grammatical means of expressing causality are represented on the level of a simple and composite sentence, the latter predominating. In a composite sentence, causality is expressed by both coordination and subordination, with the help of conjunctions denn, weil, da. These conjunctions are considered to be synonymic and, therefore, interchangeable, which is illustrated by the textual fragments cited in the text.

The article studies the interaction of the means that express causality on the levels of coordination and subordination and examines the factors that make them interchangeable or not interchangeable.

Grammatical-lexical field, causality, the functioning of form, interaction, interchangeability, implicit conjunction.

 

Kostrova, Olga, Ph.D., Dr. Philology, Professor

Kulinich, Marina, Ph.D., Dr. of Culgurology, Professor

(Samara State Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities, Samara, Russia)

Semantic and Pragmatic Categorization of Causality in German and English

The paper attempts to give a comprehensive picture of the various ways in which natural languages (German and English) express the logical meaning of causality. We consider this meaning as a part of condition. Proceeding from the theory of mental spaces, the authors examine the pragmatic regularities of employing causative conjunctions, parataxis and sequences of sentences implying causality in both languages. The authors discuss the cases which necessitate the use of argumentative cause/effect sequences, i.e. subordinate clauses of reason, sequences of independent sentences or clauses of another meaning implying reason.

causality markers, negation, intention, emotional state, necessity, cooccurrence.

 

Litvin, Felix, Ph.D., Dr. of Philology, Professor

(Orel State University, Orel, Russia)

Translation and Grammatical Categories (analysing parallel texts)

The article deals with ‘Perfect forms’in English and German and ‘Continuous forms’in English, their descriptions in grammatical literature, and offers results of a comparative analysis of parallel texts in the two languages to observe the similarities and the differences in the functioning of the forms in ‘real-life’ texts.

Grammatical category, ‘Perfect forms’, ‘Continuous forms’, invariant of grammatical meaning, subjective factors in interpreting, parallel texts.

 

Potapova, Svetlana, Ph.D., Dr. of Philology, Professor

(MUBINT – German Language Centre, Yaroslavl’, Russia)

Translation of Onomastics: Challenges for Translators and Lexicographers

The article studies the issues related to the current state of onomastic research aimed at solving practical problems of translation. The publication discusses the necessity of developing research in such spheres of linguistics as translation of onomastic lexical units and bilingual onomastic lexicography.

Proper names, translation theory, bilingual onomastic lexicography, onomastic equivalents.

Part III

Contemporary Paradigms of Foreign Language Education

Astvatsatryan M.G., Ph.D, Dr. of Education, Professor .

(ASPU Kh. Abovyan, Yerevan, Armenia)

Methodological Foundations of Convergent Language Curricula

The article focuses on the phenomenon of integrated language curriculum on the basis of the CEFR and its manifestation in the convergences between different languages.

The research intends to present the problem of plurilingual competence and didactic platform in the context of national specific dimensions across the globe. The importance of the phenomenon ‘institutional subordinative

 

bilingualism’ must be emphasized through enhancing its relevant features as a base for the development of the plurilingual competence through specific cognitive-communicative instruction.

convergence, integrated curriculum, multilingualism/plurilingualism, intercultural, institutional subordinative bilingualism, peculiarities of the national audience, the interconnected correlation of languages, interference/transfer.

 

Bugreyeva, Elena, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia)

BBC News Items as a Teaching Tool in a Foreign Language Class for Students Majoring in Journalism

The paper discusses how to use BBC news stories as a useful instrument of teaching English to future journalists. The methodology described in the article is aimed at improving both language skills and professional competences of journalists. The article offers a workable algorithm of tasks based on BBC news stories, describes some techniques of shaping language skills, and demonstrates examples of BBC news stories.

BBC news, language competence, professional competence, class work algorithm, listening skills.

 

Zaprudnova, Anastasia, Post-Graduate Student

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Motivation of the Characters as a Basis for Teaching Chinese Writing at Elementary Level

The article studies the issue of motivation in reference to Chinese characters and focuses on the notions of inner and outer motivation. The author discusses different types of motivation and suggests a new strategy for selection and presentation of language material based on motivation of the character which can be applied at the initial stage of teaching Chinese writing.

Initial stage, character, inner and outer motivation, ideography vs. phonography, pictographic characters, indicative characters, associative-compounds, pictophonetic characters.

 

Part IV

Language Studies from a Diachronic Perspective

Molchanova, Liliya, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russian)

The Limits of Stability and Susceptibility of the Phonetic System of the Japanese Language to Foreign Borrowings: A Diachronic Perspective

The article analyzes the status of large-scale phonetic changes in the Japanese language over the last century as a result of numerous foreign borrowings, and deduces that these are of a phonetic, rather than phonemic, kind. On the other hand, should mora, in preference to a single sound, be regarded as a minimal segment of Japanese oral speech, the number of moras that appeared in the language in the XXth century is indeed considerable; yet most of them can be observed in the Japanese language in its earlier epochs, therefore, they are not completely new to the language. Thus the article proves that phonetic systems of languages are stable and slowly susceptible to the influence of foreign borrowings.

diachronic phonetics, the history of the Japanese language, phonetic system, phonetic change, foreign borrowings, borrowings in the Japanese language, mora.

 

Peskova, Natalia, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

A Prototypical Approach to Structuring the Semantics of Prepositions

The article is devoted to the issue of systematizing prepositional semantics, which is done on the basis of a topological model viewed as a lexical prototype for most English primary prepositions. It focuses on diachronic development of a proximal-distant preposition by, on possible mechanisms of its development and changes of its prototypical meaning.

preposition, prototypical semantics, lexical prototype, proximal-distant preposition, development of meaning.

 

Part V Confucius Institute:

On Teaching the Chinese Language and Culture

Jin Jihua, M.Ed., Senior Lecturer

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

How to Reduce Interference of Native Culture when Teaching Aural Comprehension of Chinese

Teaching aural comprehension is a very important factor in foreign language acquisition. The article brings forward recommendations how to penetrate into the implicit intention of the speaker that might escape the attention of an inexperienced language learner who focuses of nothing but explicit facts. Background knowledge of the target language culture is of paramount importance, since it provides the learner with an insight into between-the-lines flow of information. The author provides numerous examples of aural comprehension challenges when teaching Chinese to Russian learners and suggests some strategies of coping with these problems.

Cultural factors, aural comprehension (listening) skills, influence, reduction of interference.

 

Zhao Huanyu, M.Ed.

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

Task-Based Foreign Language Methodology in a Class of Spoken Chinese

The popularity of the task-based approach to foreign language teaching can be accounted for by the authentic situations and the inner motivation they create, as well as by the clearly-defined goals. The paper attempts to show how the advantages of task-based methodology can be employed when teaching oral Chinese to a relatively large group of learners. The author also warns teachers against over-emphasizing the communicative aspect to the detriment of language skills formation, without which communication cannot be successful, anyway.

Spoken Chinese, task-based education, project work, communication, authenticity, language skills.

 

Part VI

Translation of Poetic Discourse and Translator’s Commentaries

Kolker, Jacob, Ph.D., Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

«The Phoenix and the Turtle» by Shakespeare: On Translation of Metaphysical Poets

English poets of the 17th century are often called ˮmetaphysical poetsˮ, because their verses transgress the boundaries of the material world and, nevertheless, speak of the influence of the metaphysical upon the everyday, the real. The author examines the peculiarities of the ˮmetaphysicalˮ verse, with its unique content, specific vocabulary, syntax, and rhetorical pattern. The article shows the challenges a translator faces and outlines the translation strategies that are used to adequately render the poets’ system of imagery. The works of William Alabaster, Walter Raleigh and, above all, Shakespeake’s ˮThe Phoenix and the Turtleˮ and their translation serve as material for research.

ˮMetaphysical poetsˮ, ˮstrong linesˮ, implicit motivation of metaphors, intellectualism, ˮsealingˮ the verse, juxtaposition of opposites.

 

Matveeva, Natalia, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

An insight into Yaroslav Smelyakov’s Poetry, Translation into English and Commentaries

The article is devoted to pretranslation analysis of Yaroslav Smelyakov’s poetry, the role of background knowledge about the poet and contemporary extralinguistic reality. Special attention is given to the poems named after women or containing feminine names. The author also analyzes word-building patterns of the vocabulary used by Smelyakov in his works. N. Matveeva offers her pre-translation commentaries and translator’s decisions of the poems under analysis.

analysis and translation of poetry, Yaroslav Smelyakov, lyrical poetry, Soviet epoch, translation of feminine names and patronymics, transliteration, word-building patterns, rendering diminutive suffixes in translation, compensation on the lexical level.

 

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