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Issue 2(29) 2014

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Annotations and key words. Issue 2 (29) 2014.

Part I

Concept-Centred Studies of Language and Discourse

 

Stepanov, Valentin, Ph.D., Professor

(MUBiNT, Yaroslavl’, Russia)

Interpretation of the Concept of “Kraft” (“force”) In the works of Wilhelm von Humboldt

The article examines the concept of “Kraft”, which is traditionally employed in the German humanitar- ian studies, though it often lacks terminological precision. Therefore, the word requires a more precise scien- tific definition as an epistemological concept and a unit of contemporary humanitarian knowledge. The article analyses the usage of “Kraft” chiefly in the works of Humboldt, with just a few examples from the works of his contemporaries – Kant, Hegel, Jenisch, and Steinthal, so as to reconstruct and describe the structure of the „Kraft“ concept as a unit of an epistemological system.

Wilhelm von Humboldt, concept, force, Kraft, spirit, Geist, „history of concepts“, Begriffsgeschichte.

 

Sheina, Irina, Ph.D., Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Russian Borrowings in the Yupik Eskimo Language

The article presents a study of Russian borrowings in the language of Yupik spoken by Alaskan Eski- mo people. The semantic structures of Russian borrowings reflect the consequences of the cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contacts which produced a crucial impact on the Eskimo’s world view. The article emphasizes the role of semantic borrowings in manifestation of the drastic changes in the Eskimo spiritual values which resulted from adoption of Orthodox Christianity.

сonceptual worldview, linguistic worldview, concept, borrowing, the semantic structure of a word.

 

Part II

Linguistic Pre-Requisites of Adequate Translation

 

Hans-Harry Drößiger, Ph.D.

(Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania)

Theoretical Foundations of Translation: Ontology, Equivalence, Metonymy

Culture-bound words refer to cultural knowledge, which has to be delivered to the speakers/writers of other language and culture communities when translating. The structures of cultural knowledge can be theoretically depicted by such terms as ontology, equivalence, and metonymy. The article discusses, surveys, and evaluates foundations to these terms presented by Information Science, Translation Theory, and Cognitive Linguistics. The article focuses on basic problems of translation theory and presents theoretical foundations from an interdisciplinary perspective of translation in general. Also, this article offers general ways of handling culture-bound words when translating.

Ontology, equivalence, conceptual metonymy, culture-bound words, translation.

 

Maryanovskaya, Elena, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Translation as a Vehicle for Teaching Reading and Understanding Fiction)

The author of the paper shows that translation may become a vehicle for teaching reading fiction. The author suggests that the pragmatic value of a word in a phrase, in a sentence, or in a communicative block may be explored only in the process of translation analysis. Translation analysis in its turn is viewed as a unit of pre-translation analysis, during translation analysis, and post-translation analysis. Only used in combination these three types of translation analysis enhance effectiveness while teaching reading fiction.

translation of fiction, pre-translation analysis, analysis during translation, post-translation analysis, translator as a reader, R. Kipling, “How the First Letter was Written”, “How the Alphabet was Made”, system ofpresuppositions

Naumova, Olga, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(Nizhny Novgorod State Linguistic University named for N.A. Dobrolubov, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia)

“The Proper”, “the Other”, “the Diverse”: Multicultural Dialogue and the Challenges of Translating Surzhyk in the English Texts by M. Lewycka

 

The article focuses on the texts by M. Lewycka, a modern British writer, who depicts the problems of national identity of a certain immigrant diaspora – “The Ukraine Abroad”. The linguistic aspect is a means of probing the national self-awareness: the recent “others” turn into “alien”. Due to the hyphenated identity of the author, the hybrid language of the fictional characters, a specific crossbreed lingual image is represent- ed. In translating the author’s idiolect into Russian, surzhyk – an active agent sociolect and an ethnic concept

– may serve as an adequate transmitter of the “mongrel language”. However, the usage of surzhyk as the pre- dominant stylistic tool is a debatable issue, as it lends a “regional” colouring to the translated text.

The exploitation of surzhyk is not the only way of reflecting multicultural dialogue. Various means might be suggested – such as transliteration, loan translation and calque, neologisms, nonce words, authentic cultural elements for the instrumentation of the ethnic and linguistic differences – in an age of globalization and political correctness.

national self-awareness, hybrid language, sociolect, ethnic concept, surzhyk, stylistic predominant in translation, “The Proper”, “the Other”, “the Diverse”, M. Lewycka, “A Short History of Tractors in Ukra- nian”, “Two Caravans”

 

Part III

Analysis of Written Text as Discourse

 

Boyko, Galina, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

 

Linguistic Representation of the System of Values in the Works of W. Borchert

The article is devoted to values-oriented worldview in the works of Wolfgang Borchert, a German-speak- ing writer of the forties. The article shows how different linguistic means represent the value-centred worl- dview, the typical themes and the fundamental values in the works by W. Borchert. The author suggests that the analysis of Borchert’s literary heritage from the perspective of predominant spiritual values can blaze the trail for re-examination of different approaches to values formation.

value-oriented worldview, dominant values, post-war generation, German short story.

 

Loginova, Elena, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Bringing Orderliness through Analogy as the Basic Function of a Sign

The article examines the possibilities of repetition as one of the means to assure orderliness at different levels of discourse: phonetic, lexical, syntactical and pragmatic. The author assumes that repetition, being a mechanism of the fractal modeling, functions as a sign which helps to define the under-the-surface organiza- tion of form and content relationships which stimulate communication, and thus it helps to investigate the logic of discourse development. Analysis of the drama of the absurd (S. Beckett, E. Ionesco, H. Pinter, A. Wesker) leads to creating a precise classification of cases of repetition and to elaborating the idea of bringing orderliness through analogy, which can be characterized as a universal means of sorting out linguistic and extralinguistic experience and, as such, a basis for intersemiotic interpretation of experience.

orderliness, analogy, experience, sign, semiotic system, fractal, repetition, discourse, the drama of the absurd, explicit and implicit information

Rogatin, Vladimir, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Discoveries of Shakespeare in Enlightenment Fiction

In this paper, we look into the genre affinities that the novel formed with earlier British national heritage, quoting and adapting Shakespeare to suit the new popular genre, the novel. The focus is on Henry Fielding and on his masterpiece, History of Tom Jones, Foundling. In this novel, the narrator’s characterization method is deeply indebted to the playwright, and the context of the story enables him to pronounce several deeper judgments than those voiced by professional critics.

English literature, Enlightenment, novel, quote, allusion, parody, deterioration, familiar quotation, context, personage.

 

Khromenkov, Pavel, Ph.D., Professor

(MSRU, Moscow, Russia)

“Hate speech” Studies as a Branch of Linguistic Research

This article analyzes the contemporary discourse on global issues of “hate speech” as a specific linguistic and cultural phenomenon. The article outlines the genesis of “hate speech” studies in the western humanities. “Hate speech” is highly expressive and is directly related to the speaker’s or writer’s psycho-emotional condi- tion. It is indicated in the article that the texts examined by conflict management researchers represent a very specific communication system. The article refers to the role of the mass media, including online resourc- es, in spreading “hate speech”. The paper analyses a feasible classification of speech aggression expressions in the field of ethnic relations. It also disuses the role of political technologies and their impact on the formation of “hate speech”. Refraction of “hate speech” is considered in the analysis of representatives of the various humanities disciplines. The conclusion is made that the institutionalization of a new interdisciplinary branch of studies is presently taking place.

hate speech, verbal aggression, conflict, philosophy of culture and language, sociolinguistics, psycholin- guistics, cognitive linguistics.

 

Part IV

Contemporary Paradigms of Foreign Language Education

 

Vladimirova, Lyudmila, Ph.D, Senior Researcher (Institute of content and methods of teaching, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia)

Distance Foreign Language Education: Specific Characteristics and Prospects

The article is devoted to problems of distance education. Federal law on education in the Russian Feder- ation confirms the relevance of this topic. The article considers the issues of content selection for foreign lan- guage distance education, as well as the issues of organizing such a course. The article deals with the didactic aspects of distance foreign language education and confirms that the goals and objectives of such a course, with all the opportunities modern technologies offer, are still highly debatable. The author considers Inter- net resources and Web 2.0. technologies as an opportunity to increase the amount of verbal communication in a foreign language in full-time and distance learning, and regards the blog a platform for distance learning.

distance learning, e-learning, specificity, foreign language, internet-resource, blog, Web 2.0.

 

Cameron-Faulkner, Thea, Ph.D.

(Manchester University, Manchester, UK)

Pedagogical Insights from the Usage-Based Approach to Language

The paper explores the language education potential of usage-based approaches to linguistic research, with a specific focus on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), – a theory developed by M. Halliday in the 1970s. This theory highlights the contextual and culturally specific nature of language. It attaches great significance to learning how to communicate in different genres, which are characterized by three contextual elements: field, tenor, and mode. The author maintains that usage-based linguistic theories pave the way for developing an integrated approach to the study of language and language development. Recent studies have demonstrated the value of Usage-based approaches to second and foreign language teaching and highlight the importance of providing an integrated approach to language education.

Usage-based approach, language studies, education, meaning-making, context, culture, genre, integration.

 

Kolesnikov, Andrei, Ph.D., Associate Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Instructive Professional Orientation in an Advanced Placement German Language Class (10th–10th grades)

The article regards professional orientation of high-school senior students through language instruction in an advanced placement German language class. By profession-oriented instruction the author means not only advanced German language studies but also an introduction to a profession for which the German Lan- guage can serve as a vehicle. The article describes the levels of profession-oriented language education, with a special emphasis on the mandatory (formal) and optional (informal) levels of profession-oriented German language instruction.

instructive professional orientation, German Language studies, advanced placement class, mandatory, optional, elective course.

 

Shan, Nina, Associate Professor

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

The Place of Translation in the System of Exercises Aimed at Teaching the Logic of a Coherent Utterance

The article examines the role of translation as a strategy aimed at teaching to produce effective utter- ances in the foreign language. By effectiveness we mean, above all, the logic, coherence and appropriateness of utterances in a specific communicative situation. We find it necessary to start with the analysis of extend- ed utterances as a pre-requisite to productive tasks. The analysis should be based on the relevant aspects of the communicative situation. Translation from the mother tongue (Chinese) into the foreign language (Rus- sian) makes it possible to view the goal of each speech act as part of the overall communicative intention. Translation as a bridge between the intention and speech production helps to make each sentence pragmatically relevant and to ensure coherence and cohesion of the entire utterance.

translation, analysis, synthesis, communicative situation, cohesion, coherence, communicative strategy,intention

Part V

Confucius Institute: Issues of Contemporary Sinology

 

Han Binshuan, Senior Lecturer

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

On the Challenges of Teaching Practical Phonetics to Foreigners

Acquisition of adequate Chinese pronunciation is the starting point and an extremely important stage in learning the Chinese Language. And it often proves to be the main stumbling block. The paper addresses the main challenges of teaching Chinese phonetics to foreigners. The author examines the chief difficulties encountered by users of different mother tongues and comes up with certain recommendations proceeding equally from theoretical and experimental data. Thus, the author insists that phonetics should be practiced not only during the opening stage but throughout the curriculum, that phonetic challenges require a conscious approach, and that phonetic practice ought to be communicative.

teaching Chinese to foreigners, challenges, cognition, communication Zhang Quanfeng, M.A., Senior Lecturer

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

The Language and Narrative Techniques of Chinese Internet Literature

This article continues the discussion of contemporary internet literature (see our publication in the previ- ous issue of the journal). Modern internet fiction is examined from the viewpoint of its subject-matter, focal- ization, language register, composition, genre variety, and choice of vocabulary. One other vital factor is that internet authors can communicate with the readers much more directly, and the reader’s emotional response can sometimes affect the development of an internet novel.

literary quality, narrator, diary entry, autobiography, auto-catharsis, plot, interaction.

 

Zhao Chunguan, Senior Lecturer

(Changchun University, Changchun, China)

A Brief Analysis of the Culture of Chinese and Japanese Characters

The Chinese and Japanese languages, though quite different, are brought together by sharing the same system of writing – characters. This resulted from the great influence of Confucianism on the historical devel- opment of both cultures. But the writing systems of the two nations also proceed from their peculiarities and achievements. Hieroglyphic writing has served as a link between the two languages. The process of reciprocal lexical borrowings in Chinese from Japanese and vice versa shows how these languages were developing and acquiring their specific features throughout the ages.

system of Chinese characters, the culture of hieroglyphic writing, Japanese sources of characters and vocabulary, back borrowings.

 

Part VI

Translation of Poetic Discourse and Translator’s Commentaries

(on the bicentenary of Mikhail Lermontov’s birth)

 

Kolker, Jacob, Ph.D., Professor

(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)

Great Verse, Great Music

The article establishes grounds for a synthetic linguo-musical piece of art usually vaguely termed as “romance”. The term is often specified as “Russian romance” and acquires the meaning of “a confession of emotion”, a highly personal expression of feeling through words and music – expression of joy, adoration, suffering, and death. The article examines three Russian romances written by Lermontov (“Lonesome, I Come onto the Road”, “The Sail”, and “I am Grieved”) and set to music, respectively, by Shashina, Varlamov and Dargomyzhsky. The article regards the synthetic images as rhetorical structures representing a soliloquy, a piece of autodialogue, and dramatic monologue. It gives the genre-shaping characteristics of a Russian romance setting it apart from other musical genres. The translations of the three pieces under examination, done by the author of the article, are used as instruments of research.

Russian romance, stereotyping, synthetic image, emotiveness, expressive potential, translation.

 

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