Issue 1(28) 2014
Annotations and key words. Issue 1 (28) 2014.
I. Comparative Analysis of Languages and Cultures
Abrahamyan, Karine, Ph.D., Doctor of Philology, Professor
(Yerevan State Linguistic University named for V. Brusov, Yerevan, Armenia)
A Linguistic Worldview as Reflected
in the Word-Building Capacity of a Modern Language
The article studies how a linguistic worldview reveals itself on the derivational level of a language. The article examines English, Armenian and Russian verbs of cognition. It is proved that asymmetry of a linguistic worldview manifests itself not only on the lexical and grammatical levels but also on the derivational level. The cognitive approach, when applied to word-formation, shows that the generalized derivational cluster of the same word groups in different languages reflects the process of categorizing reality. The derivational modifica- tions forming a cluster are prototypical for all the languages under study, therefore the generalized derivational cluster may be viewed as a “derivational gene pool” of the compared word-groups, a peculiar “prototypical frame” of the derivational potential of a certain word-group in different languages. Hence the above-mentioned modifications may claim the status of cognitively relevant universals. In the generalized derivational cluster the asymmetry of linguistic worldview is clearly seen in the number of derivatives representing the prototypi- cal modifications. These are accounted for by the different relevancy the above-mentioned modifications have in the cultures under study.
language, culture, contrastive analysis, asymmetry, word-formation, derivational cluster, verbs of cogni- tion, prototype
Kutyeva, Marina, Ph.D., Associate Professor (RUDN, Moscow, Russia)
Stereotyped Attitude to Laughter in Russian and Spanish Cultural and Linguistic Worldviews
The article describes how laughter is perceived in Russian and Spanish cultures, and examines the differ- ences in the semantic spectrum of this word and words related to it in the languages compared. The data col- lected suggest that in the Russian mentality laughter is treated in two ways – positive and negative, the latter definitely prevailing. On the contrary, the Spanish mentality assesses laughter positively. This inter-lingual opposition reflects the general antinomy of the Russian and Spanish mentalities as melancholic vs. cheerful.
laughter, perception, semantics, culture, verbal mentality
Nozdrina, Anastasia, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer
(Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow)
The Ways of Conceptualizing Urban Space in Russian and German
The article deals with the ways of verbalizing and conceptualizing the notion of “the city” in the German worldview from a cognitive perspective. The classification of language units is based on different cognitive metaphors and conceptual structures. The article dwells on the notion of “image” and considers the cognitive mechanism of its formation.
cognitive metaphor, conceptual structures, verbalization, conceptualization, world view, language unit, image, city, space
Streltsov, Alexey, Ph.D., Associate Professor (Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia)
Xenoderivatives: the Word-Building Aspect of Loan Words
The author analyzes the word-formative capacity of Anglicisms in newspaper discourse, establishes deri- vation models and the degree of assimilation. For example, semi-affixes like -oil, -way, -line, -news, -market,
-city, -travel, and -trade are used in the names of many Russian companies in a transcribed or transliterated form. Many proper compound nouns, borrowed from English, are not assimilated in the Russian language. Besides, numerous borrowings contain transcribed or transliterated elements “office”, “manager”, “test”, “list”, “room” etc., which do not function as word-building stems in the Russian language. The rest, such as “party”, “-maker”, “show”, “top-” and “art-” are either almost non-productive, or just very rarely used.
Anglicism, borrowing, word-building, word-formative element
II. Context-Bound Semantics of Grammar Structures
Kozhetyeva Tatyana, Ph.D., Professor
(RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
The Semantic Potential of Clauses Introduced by the Conjunction «denn»
The analysis of the clause introduced by “denn” presupposes that it can be related to the principal clause in varied ways, with semantic indicators of coordination and subordination. Therefore, the main aim of the analysis is investigating the functions of the “denn”-clause and the communicative and pragmatic conditions of revealing the cause-effect relationships. To disclose the semantic potential of such sentences and synonymous structures it is necessary to turn to text as the main criterion.
Coordination vs. subordination, cause-effect relationship, sentence sequence, coherence, interchangeable structures
Logachyova, Natalia, Assistant Professor (RSU named for S.A.Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
The Role of the Article in Actualizing the Semantic Structure of the Noun (exemplified by the noun “man”)
The paper focuses on examining the article from the logical and cognitive perspectives. It explores the actualization of the noun “man” in phraseological units with the indefinite, definite, and zero articles. This noun was selected as countable and possessing a broad array of meanings, its semantics affecting the choice of the article. The study shows that each article can have a number of functions. The author concludes that the article, apart from its grammatical purpose, may have a lexical function in context. It may affect the meaning of the noun it determines, i.e. realize different meanings of the noun, change the meaning from a direct to a figurative one, or bring various semantic features of the word to the foreground. All this predetermines the im- portance of the articles not only from a linguistic perspective, but also from the viewpoint of teaching adequate communication.
determination, abstraction, concretization, speech act, reference, deixis
III. Factors Contributing to Text Cohesion
Ivanov, Pavel, Post-Graduate Student
(Sochi Filial Branch of RUDN, Sochi, Russia)
Precedent Text as a Universal Means of Transmitting and Preserving Culture-Bound Information
The paper surveys the results of studying discourse elements of precedent texts in Gunter Grass′ novel
«Beim Häuten der Zwiebel». The expressive impact of precedent texts makes them one of the major means of character-drawing and endows the characters with both typical and individual features. In Gunter Grass’s nov- els, precedent texts have a twofold function: first, they are part and parcel of the novel’s discourse and, second, they serve to present autobiographical situations.
belles-lettres discourse, precedent text, function, synergy, self-citing
Tovmasyan, Granush, Ph.D., Associate Professor (Yerevan State Linguistic University, Armenia)
Context Presupposition Set as a Premise for Text Cohesion
The article touches upon the notion of text cohesion via presupposition set of the context. It reveals how context-inherent presuppositions regulate the cohesion of the text on its surface level. Cohesion determines appropriate verbal encoding of contextual presupposition data and adequate decoding of the information by the recipient. It is the context-inherent net of presuppositions, the relevant mental representation of a certain communication event that preconditions the surface structure of the text, hence, its cohesion.
The article shows that cohesion works on two levels, namely, the surface structure of the text, which is actualized via properly arranged sequence of clauses and sentences of diverse length and the inner organization of the numerous background contextual presuppositions.
cohesion, presupposition, context, text, context presupposition set, coherence, communication, background knowledge, background presupposition data, communicative intention
IV. Towards More Systemic and Integrated Language Teaching
Gridneva, Yulia, Assistant Professor
(Ryazan State University named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
Educational Questionnaire as a Tool of Teaching Expressive Writing to First Year Foreign Language Majors
The article explores the structure of an educational questionnaire and the main principles of its function- ing, and examines its advantages as a tool of introducing theoretical information at a lesson devoted to teaching expressive writing. The author presents an introductory educational questionnaire, meant to build a general background for developing the skills in various modes of written discourse. The questionnaire specifies the existing terminology, defines the types of creative writing envisaged by the curriculum, introduces the notion of an “effective utterance”, and examines the ways of making an utterance more effective.
educational questionnaire, expressive writing, stages of the writing process, types of papers, effectiveness, characteristics of an effective utterance: appropriateness, correctness, sufficiency, precision, economy
Kolesnikov, Andrei, Ph.D., Associate Professor (RSU named for S.A.Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
Theoretical Premises of Tertiary Philological Professionally-Oriented Language Education
The paper explores the possibilities of infusing professional vision and skills into tertiary foreign language education curriculum. The author, who relies upon his own concept of professionally-oriented philological education, explores the challenges and suggests the ways of making philological education professionally oriented from the start. The author’s suggestions are summed up in a comprehensive model of professionally- oriented tertiary foreign language education.
professionally-oriented education, tertiary, foreign language as a major
Ustinova, Elena, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Zaprudnova, Anastasia, Post-Graduate Student (RSU named for S.A. Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
Integrating Oral and Written Skills in a Beginner Course of a Foreign Language with a Hieroglyphic Script
The article describes an approach to a beginner course of Chinese taught to adult learners. The paper postulates that from the very first lessons language teaching should be integrated into a comprehensive com- municative whole. This means that: a) phonetics, grammar, and vocabulary are taught simultaneously, in pref- erence to a purely phonetic introductory course; b) the three codes – oral, pinyin transcription, and Chinese characters – are taught in close connection.
On one hand, the authors recognize the necessity of teaching Chinese characters as a system existing in its own right, with emphasis on graded graphical difficulties. But, on the other hand, the paper shows that a few more complex characters, necessitated by the needs of oral communication, can also be introduced from the start – chiefly, for purposes of recognition in context. If the teacher uses a cognitive-communicative method of presenting and practicing language units, elements of the hieroglyphic script are regarded by the student as a natural friend rather than an enemy. To achieve this end, teachers should rely on communicative tasks in identification, comparison, selection, anticipation, and decision-making.
beginner course, adults, Chinese characters, pinyin, autonomy vs. interconnection, communicative intel- lectual tasks, identification, selection, anticipation, decision-making
V. Confucius Institute – on Teaching the Chinese Language and Culture
Lin Hayan, Associate Professor (Changchun University, Changchun, China)
On Teaching the Phonetic System of Chinese as a Foreign Language
The paper deals with teaching Chinese phonetics to students with different language backgrounds. The author believes that using pinyin may be both a bliss and a challenge, since some representations of Chinese sounds in pinyin may look misleading to foreign students. The author maintains that it is easier to prevent a phonetic mistake than to eradicate it afterwards. The paper gives a survey of the Chinese sound system and suggests a tentative way of challenge gradation. Each sound should be presented as part of a system, i.e. in terms of the place and manner of articulation. The monophthongs are taught beginning with “a”, “i”, “u” as starting points.
Chinese as a foreign language, phonetics, initials, finals, challenge points
Zhang Quanfeng, M.A., Senior Lecturer (Changchun University, Changchun, China)
The Belles-Lettres Status of Chinese Internet Prose
The paper analyses a rather recent but rapidly developing phenomenon – that of internet literary publica- tions. This phenomenon is viewed from a diachronic perspective, briefly outlining the emergence and develop- ment of internet prose in China. The author chiefly focuses on the contemporary status of internet publications, as their claim to full-fledged prose fiction is a rather debatable issue. The article provides arguments both pro and contra. Since a detailed analysis of the content and form of internet prose exceeds the limits of one article, the discussion of the issue is to be continued.
Internet publications, belles-lettres properties, completeness, linear structure, open end, social value, in- teraction
Zhao Huanyu, M.A., Senior Lecturer (Changchun university, Changchun, China)
Teaching Oral Skills of Chinese as a Foreign Language According to the “Performed Culture” Methodology
The “Performed Culture” language-teaching methodology is based on acquainting students with the rules of behavior expected in this or that situation in the target language culture. Language skills are assimilated simultaneously with learning the appropriate models of behavior. This theory regards language learning as a gradual and systemic acquisition of verbal and non-verbal patterns of social interaction typical of the target culture. The article focuses on applying this methodology to teaching speaking and listening in Chinese as a foreign language.
“Performed Culture” methodology, practice, verbal and non-verbal communication, teaching listening and speaking, Chinese as a foreign language
VI. Translation of Poetic Discourse and Translator’s Commentaries
Wang Jinglin, Ph.D., Doctor of Philology, Professor (Changchun University, Changchun, China),
Kolker, Jacob, Ph.D., Professor
(RSU named for S.A.Esenin, Ryazan, Russia)
Ancient Chinese Yuèfǔ Poetry as a Genre and the Challenges of its Translation
The paper examines the peculiarities of translating yuèfǔ (乐府) , – one of the widespread poetic genres dating back to the Han dynasty (II B.C. – III A.D.). The structure of a yuèfǔ is largely predetermined by the democratic nature of the genre, which encompasses various verse types – from an ode to a folk song. Yuèfǔs were sung to music, which required a strict rhythmic, rhyme, and tone patterns. The paper gives a sample translation of a yuèfǔ verse in two representations: a line-by-line translation and a poetic version. Each of the two renderings of the original verse is accompanied by commentaries to make it easier for the reader (both professional translators and laymen) to deal with nuances of ancient Chinese poetry.
genre, epoch, Han Dynasty, rhythm, rhyme, tone, imagery